Scope and Magnitude of Private Sector Financing and Provision of Immunization in Benin, Malawi and Georgia


Learning about the various roles of the private sector in Benin, Georgia, and Malawi.  


Explore how the private sector provided immunization services and financing in three different countries and identify effective strategies for private sector engagement in your local context. 


To understand the role of private sector provision and financing of vaccination services, the authors conducted three case studies in Benin, Malawi, and Georgia, on the proportion of vaccinations taking place through the private sector, private expenditures for vaccination, and the extent of government support and regulation. This paper synthesizes the findings of the three case studies, including findings on the role of different private providers in each country with respect to immunization service delivery and financing. 

Key Points:

  • In the three study countries, private providers are playing an important role in increasing access to immunization, including non-NIP vaccines, but the models of public-private engagement in vaccination services vary widely.  
  • Malawi: 
    • 44% of private facilities, predominantly faith-based organizations, administered an estimated 27% of all vaccinations.  
  • Benin: 
    • 18% of private for-profit and not-for-profit facilities provided vaccinations, accounting for 8% of total vaccinations.  
  • Georgia: 
    • All sample facilities were privately managed and conducted 100% of private vaccinations.  
  • In all three countries, the Ministries of Health (MoHs) supplied vaccines and other support to private facilities. The study found that 6–76% of clients paid nominal fees for vaccination cards and services, and a small percentage (2–26%) chose to pay higher fees for vaccines not within their countries’ national schedules. The percentage of private expenditure on vaccination was less than 1% of national health expenditures.  

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