Findings from Immunisation Campaign Costing Studies in in India, Nigeria, and Sierra Leone: Policy and Program Implications


Learning the potential operational costs associated with conducting immunisation campaigns.


The findings from these studies can help inform vaccine delivery planning and budgeting, as well as ensure adequate funding.


Over the coming years, campaigns which codeliver multiple vaccines and interventions are likely to be used more often, with the need for efficiencies elevated by the COVID19 pandemic. Therefore, it is crucial that delivery costs are accurately estimated to inform planning, budgeting, and ensure adequate funding. This policy brief presents new costing evidence on the operational cost of immunisation campaigns from studies conducted in India, Nigeria, and Sierra Leone.

Key Findings

  • The financial delivery cost per targeted personincluding costs for all administrative levels, net of capital costs, vaccines, syringes, and safety boxesfor sampled vaccination campaign sites in India, Sierra Leone, and Nigeria ranged from US$0.15 to US$0.42.
  • There was variation in operational costs across sampled sites, and lowvolume sites appeared to have higher operational costs per targeted person, suggesting a need for more sophisticated subnational planning and financing of campaigns.
  • Evidence from the sampled sites suggests that codelivery can lead to financial efficiencies, but may also require greater use of existing resources, particularly labor.
  • Potential financial efficiencies could be leveraged to increase systemic investments in the routine immunisation programme and the broader primary healthcare system.
  • Overall average operational costs from these studies appear to be lower than current Gavi operational cost grant levels.

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