Design, Development, and Deployment of an Electronic Immunisation Registry: Experiences From Vietnam, Tanzania, and Zambia


Comparing the design, development, and deployment of EIRs based on implementation experiences from Vietnam, Tanzania, and Zambia.


The findings and recommendations from this study can inform other countries considering or in the process of implementing an EIR.


There is growing interest among low- and middle-income countries to introduce electronic immunisation registries (EIRs) that capture individual-level vaccine data. This study compares the design, development, and deployment of EIRs in Vietnam, Tanzania, and Zambia with the aim to provide practical, operational insights to country decision-makers and partners who are considering or are in the process of implementing an EIR.

Key Findings:

  • Electronic immunisation registry (EIR) development benefited from a phased scale-up approach, including multiple system iterations in each country. Although this lengthened the timeline, the process ultimately strengthened the system.
  • The role of the software developer was a key difference in partnership approaches. Challenges resulting from working with international developers were addressed by also contracting a local software partner.
  • Significant in-kind time contributed by the ministries of health and donor investment enabled these EIR implementations. Unanticipated costs resulted from system technical issues and the need to expand the server as new children are registered.
  • The technological infrastructure in each country informed EIR design decisions, with adaptations made for level of computer literacy and Internet connectivity.
  • Recommendations to countries implementing an EIR include (1) plan for an iterative development process; (2) establish an interdisciplinary leadership team—including national government staff—with clear roles; (3) ensure funding to sustain and maintain the system; and (4) develop long-term plans for maintenance, updates, and end-user support.

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