Acceptance and Demand for COVID-19 Vaccines


Understanding the different strategies countries can implement to achieve high acceptance and uptake of COVID-19 vaccines.


Use the guidance to design and evaluate targeted interventions to generate and sustain demand for COVID-19 vaccines in your local context.


This document is intended to serve as practical, how to guidance to support programs to achieve high acceptance and uptake of COVID-19 vaccines. It accompanies a demand planning Excel template and should be adapted to your local context.

Key Points

  • Monitoring social media and mainstream media to understand the rumors, misinformation and public sentiments will be useful for deciding on messaging and communication interventions.
  • In countries where sufficient data is not available, consider conducting rapid assessments using tools such as formal surveys and studies, focus group discussions, media monitoring, and informal community feedback, using a mix of qualitative and quantitative data to assess knowledge, attitudes and practices; key influencers in communities; communication channels; and the languages in which people prefer to get messages.
  • Experts and other relevant stakeholders, such as religious and community leaders, should provide quick, real-time response to social media misinformation as soon as possible to mitigate rumors and disseminate accurate information.
  • Risk communication and community engagement (RCCE) task forces, should also be utilized for COVID-19 vaccine introduction and lead efforts to develop communication plans, training and communication materials, crisis communication, and monitoring of demand generation activities.
  • Mass media plans should include focused messages through short and simple public service announcements, news stories, positive testimonials by trusted representatives,  and delivered via radio, TV, and print material, among other means. These activities should be complemented by community engagement/social mobilization activities and interpersonal communication by health workers and others.
  • Crisis communication should be part of training at national and subnational levels and there should be designated spokespersons responsible for providing transparent and accurate information to the media.
  • Coordinated advocacy and stakeholder engagement efforts are needed at the national, subnational, and community level in order to address concerns around effectiveness and safety and to generate demand.
  • Communities should be engaged in the development of microplans, design of the vaccine delivery approach, defining communication activities, implementing and monitoring vaccination activities, and localizing messages. Social mobilizers and community health workers should be tasked with distributing print materials, engaging with communities in relation to COVID-19 vaccine introduction, and informing health facilities of community concerns or needs related to the vaccine.
  • Interpersonal communication training modules for health workers should be integrated into capacity building training, organized at national, subnational and community levels, and localized to address local contexts. This ensures they are proficient in vaccine preparations and communication needs and approaches.
  • Demand planning should include plans and activities for the monitoring and evaluation of relevant activities linked with the national deployment and vaccination plan (NDVP) and performance indicators. This should also include developing a monitoring checklist and rapid surveys to assess the effectiveness of communication activities.
  • Lessons learned should be quickly adapted for course adjustments, disseminated, and considered in any future vaccine introduction efforts.

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